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What is achievement gap and its effects on the US education system?

by Muhammad Sikandar Basharat
us education

What is means by an achievement gap?

The achievement gap can be referred to as and closely related learning and opportunity gap. It is simply can be referred to as a difference between the different groups of students such as white and minorities etc,  on the basis of academic or educational performance and attainment level (Great SchoolsPartnership, 2013).

Education Achievement Gap in the United States

INTRODUCTION

This paper is about the achievement gap problems and will highlight the vital issue and also include the recommendation and literary review on student’s achievement gap. This will spotlight the “Education Achievement Gap in the United States schools” that is becoming very crucial for the educationist to overcome it.

It not only affects the students, but it also affects the teacher, society and educational system as well. Despite all the efforts and practices in the education system of the U.S. An achievement gap is still existing and remains a point able problem for the learners, instructor, educational institutes and communities.

This is mostly affecting the urban school’s educational system of the  U.S.A among the higher and lower levels of income families. However, the government and educational institute and from the instructors continued efforts reducing this gap as well as helping them to understand the student’s educational growth as per the typical way of teaching methods especially in groups defined by socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity​‌‌‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‌‌‍‌‍​y and gender. The achievement gap can be referred to as and closely related learning and opportunity gap.

It is simply can be referred to as a difference between the different groups of students such as white and minorities etc,  on the basis of academic or educational performance and attainment level (Great SchoolsPartnership, 2013). The achievement gap also happens due to the different education levels for society’s different classes. The impact of the demographic element of characteristics has also very little but point able impact over the score and growth static.  

“Education Achievement Gap in the United States” is the most significant issue now for the U.S.A to control it avoids the low ranking in education globally. It is not only supposed for the U.S.A. For closing the achievement gap in the American public education system it is widely considering a major challenge that is facing by the American educational communities and society (Great SchoolsPartnership, 2013). 

This gap is not only caused due to low income and high income. It is also causing by racism which is the strongest correlative of the achievement gap and hates among the students on the bases of gender, genre, states co and language. 

This factor also causing a low interest in education gaining in the students and among the minorities especially. This gap makes a bad impact on the students’ abilities and also decreasing their confidence and creativity. And this also indirectly make influences any country literal, creativity, innovative and education system index domestically and globally.

The situation is not only facing by the students, teachers and both communities are also facing this. Socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity​‌‌‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‌‌‍‌‍​y and gender-based groups of students, teacher, and their communities are mostly and big victim of this issue or problem.

Grade and ranking are often attributed to them as stake and this factor affects their educational opportunity. This problem making stress and education as a burden for the students and teachers as well as their communities. Poverty and parental low education and interest in education also take part in this issue rising. And this is one of the biggest factors of this gap (Smith, 2016).

Consumption of educational data by the authorities such as government, schools, agencies, and the media for the tracking of information by using technology exposed the achievement gap as well that had been ignored and unidentified intentionally or unintentionally in past decades. 

This  “gap” can be figured by using the variety of measures, including standardized test scores, grade point average, dropout rates, and college enrollment and completion rates (Achievement Gap in the United States, n.d.).  Many students came from poor, unstable families and they also have un-adequate nutrition and medical care which causes the environmental stress on the child and can damage its development, abilities, and skills.

These types of students come in the school with a low level of word knowledge and this also causes the language problem for them. It is proved by many kinds of research that students perform well in education when he/she has parental overseeing and assistance.

Educational material quality and differentiation also causing this problem achievement gap in the students of the U.S.A. Institutional infrastructure is also responsible for this because every school do and have different impacts on the children. The achievement gap makes a huge and dramatic change in the students. It has a direct influence on the students and as well as teachers and on their communities’ mental and on their physics.  

The issue can cause national loss as in the shape of the intellectual ability loss of the student and teacher. As for the teacher, it is also very vitally impact-full. Because it can affect his/her confidence and he/she cannot freely do his job and teach effectively and efficiently.

The achievement gap can also take effect on the behavior and attitude of both teachers and students. It can make them introverted and may change let them to the angriness. Cultural influence forms the parents or by the society towards them also impacts on their life activities (Achievement Gap in the United States, n.d.).  

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

According to the literature, Herrnstein, and Murray, the book claimed that “gap in the achievement of study” may be the happen due to the genetical intelligence variations (Herrnstein, 1996).    But other some recaches argued on their ideology and refused it. In his report, McKinsey & Company concluded that the gap in achievement is caused by a “permanent national recession” in 2009. 

The achievement can be reduced and covered by the district and school level, administrators and by the teachers to may employ a wide range of strategies to eliminate achievement gaps. Racisms is also proved by the Paige and Witty book for the achievement gap factor findings in the U.S. educational system. They even considered the other aspects of disparities in the educational system of the U.S.A.

In their book, they took the white and black achievement gap as finding factors (Rod Paige, 2010).  The problem for the achievement gap factor study regarding race and ethnicity is that this issue has fluid and general definitions to elaborate it, but it cannot fully cover the whole diversity in the educational system problem of America’s among different groups.  

Inequity in American’s educational system which is fundamentally based on race and ethnicity aspects has been found in the verity of nations as well in a wide range to measure the achievement gap (Mary Webb, 2015). The issue is not only specific to America, but it is also a big problem for other counties a well especially in developed countries. The thought of distinguishing education system of any society collaterally damage in society and increase the hate, violence, and extremism. 

And these are enough for any society destruction. Historically it has been proved also that differentiation on the level of any fundamental rights among the different groups, however, it is education or other dangerously damage the society and was one of the big causes of their failure.  This issue of treatment has potential charges and complexity as well. Disparities including race and ethnicity, inequity, etc, may be very crucial due to the lack of willingness in the public to discuss this issue freely.

The 2015 survey on this issue indicated that adults of the united states showed more intention and concern and also willing to talk over the achievement gap and framed the economic condition and racism responsible for this. They also mentioned other disparities and suggest some solutions as well to take over verity achievement gaps issues (Jhon Valant, 2016 ).

Typically this issue is considered mostly as within the school environment and only take it as responsible for that but in 2015 Jaynes analysis indicates that outside factor tends to be much correlated and strongly impactful in decreasing the achievement gap in the students of America (Jeynes, 2014). 

Some researcher pointed out it may be difficult to understand and not right to framing this issue that is cause only by the racism, ethnicity and inequality, in their research “Bol and Berry” claimed that student individual negative characteristic is also the responsible for the achievement gap and it may be not right to avoid this factor too (Linda Bol, 2005).

The role of the teacher in the scenario cannot be avoided and neglected they are maybe responsible for that. Because racism is still exiting in American society. Teachers’ low levels of nonknowledge about the topic or low teaching technique do play a role in it (Mary Webb, 2015).

Teacher roles in this are very crucial to determine but it factual that they may are responsible for that, even they are the victim of this issue too. Educational communities also are part of this due to the same element acquiring this issue causes as inequity, racism, and ethnicity. As we know that academic performance generally categorized by socioeconomic status (SEC) but the low quality of education is also the cause of the gap in the united sate some area especially in rural areas.

Coleman reports in 1996 also prove this, this study conducted by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to figure out the level of education and availability in the united states. But it also exited in urban areas too. Achievement in rural areas of the United States is much higher than the rural due to the variety of exaction or teaching material and institution.

The research also proved that thee school climate also plays a part in the gap creation among the students. Many researchers have proved this through different analysis models elements and emphasis on urban schools and their community’s role in the achievement gap. In 2009 McCabe, Michelli, Cohen, and Pickeral also elaborated on the school climate as “spheres of school life” like safety, relationships, teaching and learning, the environment (Cohen, 2009).

School climate is also categorized in terms of personality traits differentiation to others like an individual such as openness and warmth within the system (Hannum, 1997). Considering these terminologies about school climate represent as holistic school experience. However, there are little studies about the link between school climate and achievement analysis, but this cannot be ignored and missed in the list of achievement gap cause.”.  

Where the usage of technology improves the education and teaching methodology there it also plays a role in achievement gap creation in the students, means if the students belong to the poor family, he/she will definitely face the problem in using technology to learn due to lack of availability of digital sources. It can also be a problem for the instructor due to having old techniques of teaching.

DISCUSSION

This research developed and landed and tracked us to an educational practice to renewed the needs to investigate the ways it is originally conceptualized and operationalized. It has been heightened above that the “educational achievement gap “in the united states is causing due to some factor and those are racism, ethnicity, and inequality injustice, and educational service form institutions. But it also concluded that there are many factors instead of them that are strongly influencing on achieving gap building in the student, teacher as well as in the education communities.

It also gives the idea that the achievement gap in the students of the united states urban schooling system is also causing by the individual own characteristic and parental lack of interest, guide or assistance in child education and concertation for the education. This study also highlighted the urban school system of the united nation is suffering from the diversification in education material and in the variety and way of teaching.

This is a very alarming situation for the state to handle. This study also helps to evaluate the statistical assumptions to check the data as well.  The study figured out that the grading, ranking and language preferences by the institution and by the society are also the cause of the “Education Achievement Gap in the United States”.

It pointed out the technology role as well in this issue how an individual however it is a teacher or learner who can face this issue due to the lack of technology awareness if he/she belongs to the poor or lower-income families.   In this study the white and black racism also prominent to point out, because this is very sensitive for the nation of the united states due to the historical events in the past.

So, the government should do the needed steps to stop this in the education system. Because it lends the society to extremism, violence hate.         The study concluded that the achievement gap can be created in the students because of their own negative characteristics and due to parent or genetical heritages diseases and disability.

Further, it concluded that the achievement gap in the united states students, teachers, and their communities in urban life or society facing competition which lending them to get and teach education in variety but not in quality. Many intuition motives are only earning, not quality and completive education.

Further, the education system of the united system needs to be more advanced and based on the equal level of education for all society. The research indicated that the government needs to be more practical and make efforts to decrease it and overcome it. Because the practical efforts from the united government are not much as needed.

It also spotlights the language problem factor that is also lending the achievement gap in the students, because most students come from rural areas and belong to the poor family so they faced words problem to verbal or understand and thing create the achievement gap in them.

These findings also figure out the school climate impact and influence over the student’s creativity, skills, and abilities. This means a sound school climate makes a good impact on the learner and bad can create the achievement gap among different students.

This study also can help the teacher to understand the student’s behavioral, attitude aspects to decrease the gap and show the role and importance of the teacher in creating and decreasing the gap. As a teacher, it is his/her responsibly to give the appropriate and equal time to each and every caliber learner to stop, decrease and to avoid the achievement gap creation in the learners.    

More, this paper of research indicated the parent’s role and necessity too. Because they are the first instructors of the child and they should develop his/her personality to interact positively in every kind of situation and difficulties.   There is also instruction for the urban and rural educational institutions that they should be more effective, efficient and more than professionalism to educate the learner.

It also suggests the instructors and institution, as well as the government, conduct the professional, ethical, social development programs to accurate are that what the learner want. This study mostly focusing on the urban schooling system problem and drawbacks but it considered and show off the rural schooling problem as well. 

It also suggests that to overcome this problem is not only the responsibly of the government, institution, but it is also the individual responsibly too. This also evaluated that an individual’s participation and confessing the weakens can help him/her to decrease and overcome the educational achievement gap.                 

References

Bibliography

Achievement Gap in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from lumen: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/teachereducationx92x1/chapter/achievement-gap-in-the-united-states/

Cohen, J. a. (2009). School Climate: Research, Policy, Teacher Education and Practice. Teachers College Record, 180-213.

Great SchoolsPartnership. (2013, 12 19). ACHIEVEMENT GAP. Retrieved from EDUCATION REFORM: https://www.edglossary.org/achievement-gap/

Hannum, W. K. (1997). Middle School Climate: An Empirical Assessment of Organizational Health and Student Achievement. Research Article, 290-311.

Herrnstein, R. J. (1996). The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Jeynes, W. H. (2014). A Meta-Analysis: The Relationship Between Father Involvement and Student Academic Achievement. Research Article, 387-423.

Jhon Valant, D. A. (2016 ). The Politics of Achievement Gaps: U.S. Public Opinion on Race-Based and Wealth-Based Differences in Test Scores. Research Article.

Linda Bol, R. Q. (2005). EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS & LEADERSHIP FACULTY PUBLICATIONS. Secondary Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions of the Achievement Gap, 32-45.

Mary Webb, E. R. (2015). Teachers’ Perceptions of Educators’ and Students’ Role in Closing the Achievement Gap. NATIONAL FORUM OF TEACHER EDUCATION JOURNAL, 1-8.

Rod Paige, E. W. (2010). The Black-White Achievement Gap: Why Closing It Is the Greatest Civil Rights Issue of Our Time. New York: American Management Association.

Smith, B. (2016, 5 4). INFORMING AND ADVANCING EFFECTIVE POLICY. Retrieved from Stanford CEPA: https://cepa.stanford.edu/news/why-there-huge-academic-achievement-gap-between-white-students-and-their-peers-color

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